Guardians of the Potato at Parque de la PapaGuardians of the Potato at Parque de la Papa https://i2.wp.com/photo-diaries.com/home/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/IMG_5931-e1567630738255.jpg?fit=1024%2C758&ssl=1 1024 758 Cyndie Burkhardt Cyndie Burkhardt https://secure.gravatar.com/avatar/11bdd8db01b75029c52c377a9af40bca?s=96&d=mm&r=g
“Papa” is a Quechua word that simply means tuber (a.k.a. potato). You probably don’t want to call your dad a tuber although the word connotes deep respect in Peru. The Quechua people predate the Inca and shaped the agricultural backbone of Andean civilization. They have a long history of cultivating diverse potato varieties and a deep understanding of the local species, ecosystems, landscape, and climate conditions. The Quechua understand that all elements of the earth are alive and interconnected—the spirits of humans, animals, crops, and Pachamama (Mother Earth). Sumaq Kausay or “buen vivir” (good living) is their way of life based on relations of respect and reciprocity to create a harmonious existence. Potatoes are, naturally, a central element of Quechua, and Peruvian, culture.
Parque de la Papa is the Potato Park in the Pisac region of the Sacred Valley of Peru. It’s the central point of the Andean highlands and potato growers. The Papa Arariwa, Guardians of the Potato, are dedicated to preserving native Andean potatoes, maintaining the integrity of traditional Quechua eco-diversity, and ensuring food security.
All photographs ©2019, Cyndie Burkhardt.
A park, a farm, and a museum
Nassario Kispe’ Amoco welcomed me at the entrance to Parque de la Papa wearing traditional Quechua clothes and a warm, friendly smile. I’ve been looking forward to visiting this Pampallaqta community, one of six neighboring indigenous Quechua communities that make up the park. His introduction began with several facts:
- Potato Park consists of 9,270 hectares of land
- The altitude ranges from 3,150 to 4,619 meters above sea level (10,334 to 15,154 feet)
- The population is 7,444, spread across six communities
We went to a small room in the main building where hundreds of potato varieties were on display along with maize, beans, and a few grains including quinoa and wheat. It was arranged from top to bottom according to the level on which crops are grown. Quechua farmers in the Andes highlands maintain ancient practices of planting on terraces. Here they’re divided into three levels. Numerous vertical microclimates exist at different altitudes, often very close to each other. Different potato varieties grow at every level, quinoa grows better in the middle, and maize and beans grow better at the bottom. Crops are constantly monitored to ensure their ideal growing conditions.
More than a snack
Potatoes have been a staple of the Andean diet for something like 10,000 years. Their value comes in part from growing at high altitudes under difficult environmental conditions. Over 4,500 varieties grow in the Andean highlands of Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador, where potatoes originated. How many potatoes did you say? Roughly 3,000 are camote (sweet potatoes) and roughly 1,500 are native Andean roots and tubers. Size, shape, color, skin, texture, and taste vary widely. There are roughly 180 wild potato species. While the latter are too bitter to eat, their importance is their natural resistance to pests, disease, and climate conditions. Diversity is a highly valued heritage.
Pachamanca, from the Quechua words pacha (earth) and manca (pot), is an Andean cooking style. At the end of a harvest farmers dig a hole and build a fire to heat up rocks. Potatoes, meat, lima beans, and spices are layered with the hot rocks and buried. The food cooks underground and is then eaten in celebration of Pachamama (Mother Earth) as thanks for giving life to the agriculture.
The Papa Arariwa at Potato Park document different varieties of locally grown native potatoes and they’re proud keepers of the traditional knowledge of cultivation, seed selection, and storage. Potato Park holds the largest in-situ diversity of potatoes in the world: approximately 1,400 varieties. The International Potato Center (CIP), headquartered in Lima, has seed copies in its world potato bank where thousands of varieties are stored in a secure vault.
Walking to Potato Park’s seed bank, Nassario stopped short of the entrance to wipe his feet. I followed his lead. It seemed more a gesture of respect than cleanliness for the concrete floor. After explaining the building’s ventilation, natural light, and water system he showed me a few seed types with their identification. A poster on the wall showed a Quechua celebration with potatoes. Nassario pointed to it and burst into a little dance and laughed. “Alright!,” I said, laughing along and joining in with a head bob.
Standing inside the bank, Nassario spoke about agricultural and ecological diversity, animals, stars, the Inca, and Pachamama. All of the food is grown organically and traditionally, no chemicals are used. Everything is considered.
Maria Bellida, who I met twice in Lima and is with CIP, told me the organization works to determine which seeds grow best at which microclimates. The goal is to help farmers get the best seeds for their land. CIP breeds native Andean and wild potatoes (non-GMO) to develop “improved” varieties that can withstand climate change.
Climate change is impacting crop planting, rotation, and yields in the region. Too much sun, unpredictable rain patterns, and early frost are complicating the terraced fields. Farmers are forced to plant at higher altitudes to compensate for these changes and they’re running out of space.
Nassario described the three planting opportunities during the fall season, based on where the mountain gets its most sun. In September the sun is highest at the top, in October it’s at the middle, and in November it’s at the lowest, if something fails at one of the levels, they have the other crops to fall back on.
Given the abundant variety and reverence for potatoes I assumed nutrition would be a driver in the celebration of this valued crop. The beloved vegetable is an excellent source of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, low fat carbs, and fiber. None of this was part of our conversation. When I asked about this, Nassario gave a basic answer—potatoes are good for anti-cancer, anti-inflammation, the head (headaches), and the skin. The traditional ancestors used them for medicine, although he didn’t offer details. The Quechua rely on abundant, native medicinal plants that grow wild here, a few of which we saw in the field. Potatoes and herbs eaten together may be their nutritional powerhouse combination.
Nassario is clear however that every potato has a specific preparation. He rattled off four common varieties:
- Amarilla (yellow)—you mash
- Blanca (white)—you fry
- Roja (red)—you boil
- Purpura (purple)—you put in the oven
Potato varieties have different and specific practical uses—for ceremonies and rituals, for trade among Peruvian communities, and as wedding gifts for some very special varieties.
The next generation
Science and resources from CIP help preserve the Andean potato varieties and Potato Park is protecting seeds, farming, and cultural traditions. The best insurance though for safeguarding Quechua heritage, lifestyle, and food security lies directly with the people.
Inter-generational wisdom is prized and elders share their extensive knowledge about the connection between food, people, land, family, community, and culture. Nassario learned from his grandfather, who learned from his grandfather, and so on. A small, round brick building is under construction near the entrance to Potato Park. Narrario’s goal is to pass down knowledge and traditions and educate the next generation of farmers.